I’ve written before about how vital it is to be able to re-test our software quickly, so we can ensure it’s always shippable after every change we make to the code.
Achieving a fast-running test suite requires us to engineer our tests so that the vast majority run as quickly as possible, and that means most of our tests don’t involve any external dependencies like databases or web services.
If we visualise our test suites as a pyramid, the base of the pyramid – the bulk of the tests – should be these in-memory tests (let’s call them ‘unit tests’ for the sake of argument). The tip of the pyramid – the slowest running tests – would typically be end-to-end or system tests.
But one person’s “fast” is often another person’s “slow”. It’s kind of ambiguous as to what I and others mean when we say “your tests should run fast”. For a team relying on end-to-end tests that can take many seconds to run, 100ms sounds really fast. For a team relying on unit tests that take 1 or 2 milliseconds, 100ms sounds really slow.
A Twitter follower asked me how long a suite of 5,000 tests should take to run? If the test suite’s organised into an ideal pyramid, then – and, of course, these are very rough numbers based on my own experience – it might look something like this:
- The top of the pyramid would be end-to-end tests. Let’s say each of those takes 1 second. You should aim to have about 1% of your tests be end-to-end tests. So, 50 tests = 50s.
- The middle of the pyramid would be integration and contract tests that check interactions with external dependencies. Maybe they each take about 100ms to run. You should aim to have less than 10% of those kinds of tests, so about 500 tests = 50s.
- The base of the pyramid should be the remaining 4450 unit tests, each running in roughly 1-10ms. Let’s take an average of 5ms. 4450 unit tests = 22s.
You’d be in a good place if the entire suite could run in about 2 minutes.
Of course, these are ideal numbers. But it’s the ballpark we’re interested in. System tests run in seconds. Integration tests run in 100s of milliseconds. Unit tests run in milliseconds.
It’s also worth bearing in mind you wouldn’t need to run all of the tests all of the time. Integration and contract tests, for example, only need to be run when you’ve changed integration code. If that’s 10% of the code, then we might need to run them 10% of the time. End-to-end tests might be run even less frequently (e.g., in CI).
Now, what if your pyramid was actually a diamond shape, with the bulk of your tests hitting external processes? Then your test suite would take about 8 minutes to run, and you’d have to run those integration tests 90% of the time. Most teams would find that a serious bottleneck.
And if your pyramid was upside-down, with most tests being end-to-end, then you’re looking at 75 minutes for each test run, 90% of the time. I’ve seen those kind of test execution times literally kill businesses with their inability to evolve their products and systems.